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"The workless men on the streets serve as a whip in the hands of the capitalist for using against the workers in the factory. The industrial reserve army furnishes examples of men driven to utter desperation of poverty and starvation, and even of crime. Those who are unable to find work throughout a prolonged period gradually take to drink, or become vagabonds, beggars, etc In large towns - as London , New York, Hamburg, Berlin, Paris - there are entire districts inhabited by such workless people. Such a quarter is the Chitrov Market in Moscow. In the place of the proletariat a stratum appears in society which has forgotten how to work (the "lumpenproletariat"). With the introduction of machinery came women - and child-labor. These kinds of labor are cheap, and, therefore, are more profitable to the capitalist. Before the advent of machinery considerable skill, and in some cases a long apprenticeship was necessary. But many machines can be attended to by children. There is nothing to be done but to raise an arm or to move a leg. That is the reason why, since the invention of machinery, the labor of women and children has been extensively used. Besides, women and children cannot offer the same resistance to the capitalist as men workers. They are more timid, and believe more readily what the clergyman and others in authority tell them. Therefore, the manufacturer often replaces men by women, and compels little children to coin their blood into gold pieces for his benefit" (pag 42-43) [LEGGERE IN: Bucharin N. Preobraschensky E., 'A.B.C. of Communism. Volume I.', The Marxian Educational Society, Detroit, 1921] [Versione digitale su richiesta] [ISC Newsletter N° 77] ISCNS77DIGIT
 
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